Gabriel D Gwanmesia, PhD
Professor of Physics & Engineering
Division of Physical & Computational Science
ggwanmesia [at] desu.edu
Delaware State University, Physics & Mathematics, B.S.1985
State University of New York, Stony Brook, Geophysics, M.S.1987
State University of New York, Stony Brook, Geophysics, PhD 1991
- 1998-Present: Professor of Physics, Delaware State University
- 1994-1998: Associate Professor of Physics, Delaware State University
- 1991-1994: Assistant Professor of Physics, Delaware State University
Professor Gabriel Gwanmesia is currently with the Division of Physical and Computational Science. His research interests are in mineral physics, which applies high-pressure and high-temperature experimental techniques to understand how the physical and chemical properties of minerals and rocks control their geological behavior, especially at high pressures and high temperatures. Knowledge of the Earth depends on understanding the properties of Earth materials.
At small scale, the functionality of any condensed matter depends on the position of its atoms. The physical properties of a material can drastically change as the positions of atoms and their arrangements change in response to changes in conditions such as pressure and temperature.
In his doctoral thesis at Stony Brook University, Gwanmesia adapted hot-pressing techniques in the large-volume 2000-ton uniaxial spilt-sphere apparatus (USSA-2000), a multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus installed at the Stony Brook High Pressure Laboratory. The hot-pressing techniques that he pioneered have been applied to synthesize polycrystalline specimens of mainly important Earth materials at high pressures to 20 GPa (200,000 atmospheres) and temperatures of 3450 K. The techniques have been disseminated throughout high pressure laboratories, world-wide, and especially Europe, Asia and Australia, for fabricating minerals stable at high pressures and temperatures in the Earth’s interior, and materials of extra-terrestrial environment. The techniques are also used for producing novel materials for energy and industrial applications.
Gwanmesia applies the hot-pressing techniques to synthesize and characterize Earth materials. Special focus is on the laboratory measurements of the elastic properties of deep-Earth materials using ultrasonic interferometric techniques, in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation. The measurements have been carried out at high-pressure beam lines developed at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Advanced Photon Light Source (APS) in Chicago. The elasticity data for Earth materials are combined with data from other geophysics fields such as seismology, geochemistry, and petrology to infer the mineralogical and petrological composition of the Earth’s interiors, and to help in the interpretation and prediction of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes and hurricanes. More broadly, the data help enhance our knowledge of the Earth’s formation, its evolution and its current state.
Gwanmesia has also applied his research techniques to study materials for energy applications, such as thermoelectric materials used to convert waste energy to electricity, as well as rare-earth materials used as nuclear rods to absorb radiation in water-breeder nuclear reactors.
- Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science
- Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences (COMPRES)
- Inter-displinary Consortium for Research Access in Science and Engineering (INCREASE)
- American Geophysical Union, Washington DC
- American Mineralogical Society
- Sigma-Xi Scientific Research Society
- Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook, New York
- Marcano A. O., Gwanmesia G.D., Workie B. (2017) Photothermal Mirror Method for the Study of Thermal Diffusivity and Thermo-elastic Properties of Opaque Solid Materials, International Journal of Thermo-physics, 38: 136; DOI 10.1007/s10765-017-2276-9.
- Liebermann, R., Ehm L., and Gwanmesia G.D. (2016). Creating career paths for African-American students in geosciences. Eos, 97, doi:10.1029/2016EO052099. 12
- Ting C., Gwanmesia G.D., Wang X., Zou Y., Liebermann R.C., Michaut C., Li B. (2015) Anomalous Shear Properties of Coesite at High Pressure and Implications for the X-discontinuity in the Earth’s Upper Mantle, Physics of Earth and Planetary Interiors, 412, 42-51.
- Gwanmesia G. D., Wang L., Heady A., and Liebermann R. C. (2014) Elasticity and sound velocities of polycrystalline grossular garnet (Ca3Al2Si3O12) at simultaneous high pressures and high temperatures, Phys. Earth Planet., 228, 80-87.
- Aristides M., Gwanmesia G.D., King M., Caballero D. (2014) “Determination of thermal diffusivity of opaque materials using the photothermal mirror method,” Opt. Eng., 53(12), 127101.
- Isaak D. G., Gwanmesia G.D., Fade D., Davis M.D., Stafford S.C., Stafford A.M., and Triplett R.S. (2010) The Temperature Dependence of the Elasticity of Fe-Bearing Wadsleyite, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 182, 107–112.
- Gwanmesia G. D., Wang L., Triplett R., and Liebermann R.C. (2009) Pressure and Temperature Dependence of the Elasticity of Py60Mj40 and Py50Mj50 Garnets measured by Ultrasonic Interferometry Technique, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 174, 1-4, 105-112.
- Fuming, J., Gwanmesia, G. D, Tatiyana, I. D., and Thomas S Duffy, T. S. (2009) Elasticity of Stishovite and Acoustic Mode Softening Under High-Pressure by Brillouin Scattering, Earth, Planet Science Lett., 172, 3-4, 235-240.
- Gwanmesia, G. D., Jackson, I., and Liebermann, R. C. (2007a) In search of the mixed derivative ∂2M/∂P∂T (M = G, K): joint analysis of ultrasonic data for polycrystalline pyrope from gas- and solid-medium apparatus. Phys. Chem. Minerals, 34, 85-93.
- Isaak D. G., Gwanmesia G. D., Falde D., Davis M. D., Triplett R. S., and Wang L. (2007) The Elastic Properties of b-Mg2SiO4 from 295 to 660 K and Implications on the Composition of Earth’s Mantle. Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 162: 22-31.
- Gwanmesia G. D., Zhang J., Darling, K., Kung J., Li, B., Wang L., Neuville D., Liebermann R. C. (2006) Elasticity of Polycrystalline Pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12) to 9 GPa and 1000°C. Phys Earth Planet Inter 155: 179-190.
- Darling, L. D., Gwanmesia, G. D., Kung, J., Li, B., and Liebermann, R. C. (2004), Ultrasonic measurements of sound velocities in polycrystalline San Carlos olivine in multi-anvil, high-pressure apparatus. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, 143-144.
- Giesting P. A., Hofmeister A. M., Wopenka B., Gwanmesia G. D., and Jolliff B. L. (2004) Thermal conductivity and Thermodynamics of majoritic garnets: Implications for the transition zone, Phys. Earth Planet. Letters, 218, p. 45-56
- Hofmeister A. M., Giesting P. A., Wopenka B., Gwanmesia G. D., and Jolliff B. L. (2004) Vibrational spectroscopy of pyrope-majorite garnets: Structural Implications, American Mineralogist, 89, 132-146.
- Gwanmesia G. D. J Liu, G. Chen, S. Kesson, S. M. Rigden and R. C. Liebermann, Elasticity of the pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12)- Majorite (MgSiO3) garnets Solid Solution. Phys. Chem. Minerals, 27, 7, 445-452, (2000).
- Liu J, Ganglin Chen, Gabriel D. Gwanmesia and Robert C. Liebermann, Elastic wave velocities of pyrope-majorite garnets (Py20Mj38 and Py50Mj50) to 9 GPa, Physics of Earth and Planetary Interiors, 120, 153-163, (2000)
- Gupte, C. F. Desai, G. Gwanmesia and N. Melikechi “Effect of pH on growth of Zinc (tris) Thiourea Sulfate ” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45, 306 (2000)
- Chen, G. Cooke, J.A., Gwanmesia G.D and R.C. Liebermann, Elastic Wave velocities of pyrope garnet to 10 GPa. Am. Mineral. 84, 384-388, 1999.
- Gwanmesia G. D., G. Chen and R. C. Liebermann, Sound velocities in MgSiO3-garnet to 8 GPa, Geo phys. Res. Lett., 25, 24, 4553-4556, 1998.
- Wang, Y., D. J. Weidner, J. Zhang, J. Chmielowski, R. C. Liebermann and G. D. Gwanmesia, Thermal equation of state of garnets along the majorite-pyrope join, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 105, 59-71, 1998.
- Liebermann, R. C., G. Chen, B. Li, G. D. Gwanmesia, J. Chen, M. T. Vaughan, and D. J. Weidner, Sound velocity measurements in oxides and silicates at simultaneous high pressures and temperatures using ultrasonic techniques in multi-anvil apparatus in conjunction with synchrotron x-radiation determination of equation of state, Rev. High Pressure Sci. Technol, Vol 7, 75-78, 1998.
- Gwanmesia G. D. G. Chen and R. C. Liebermann, Ultrasonic Elasticity of Mg4Si4O12 majorite garnet to 9 GPa, at room Temperature Geo phys. Res. Lett., in preparation, September, 1997.
- Reynard B., F Takar, F. Guyot, G. D. Gwanmesia, R. C. Liebermann and P Gillet, High-Temperature Raman spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction study of β-Mg2SiO4: Insights into its high-temperature thermodynamic properties and the α- to β-phase-transformation mechanism and kinetics, Am. Min, 81, 585-594, 1996
- Rossano S., L. Galoisy. and G. Gwanmesia, Crystal-field spectrum of γ-Ni2SiO4, Eur. j. Mineral., 8, 471-475, 1996.
- Parise, J. B., Y. Wang, G. D. Gwanmesia, J. Zhang, Y. Sinelnikov, J Chmielowski, D. J. Weidner, and R. C. Liebermann, The Symmetry of Garnets on the pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3012) - Majorite (MgSiO3) Join, Geo phys. Res. Lett., 23, 25, 3799-3802, 1996.
- Baosheng L., G. D. Gwanmesia, and R. C. Liebermann, Sound Velocities of the Olivine and Beta Polymorphs of Mg2SiO4 at Earth’s Transition Zone Pressures, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 17, 2259-2262, 1996.
- Rigden S. M., G. D. Gwanmesia and R. C. Liebermann, Elastic Wave Velocities of a pyrope-majorite solid solution to 3 GPa, Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, 86, 35-44, 1994.
- Meng,Y., Y Fei, D. J. Weidner, G. D. Gwanmesia, and J Hu, Hydrostatic Compression of -Mg2SiO4 to Mantle Pressures and 700K: Thermal Equation of State and the Related Thermoelastic Properties, Phys. Chem. Minerals„ 21, 407-412, 1994.
- Meng Y. , D. J. Weidner, G. D. Gwanmesia, R. C. Liebermann, M. T. Vaughan, Y. Wang, K. Leinenweber, R. E. Pacalo, A. Yeganeh-Haeri and Y Zhao, In-situ P-T x-ray diffraction studies on three polymorphs (α, β, γ) of Mg2SiO4, Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, B12, 2,2199-2,2207, 1993.
- Rigden S. M., G. D. Gwanmesia, J. D. Fitz Gerald, I. Jackson, and R. C. Liebermann, Spinel elasticity and seismic structure of the transition zone of the mantle, Nature, 354, 143-145, 1991.
- Susman S., K. J. Volin, D. L. Price, M. Grimsditch, J. P. Rino, R. K. Kalia, P. Vashishta, G. D. Gwanmesia, Y Wang, and R. C. Liebermann, Intermediate-range order in permanently densified vitreous SiO2: A Neutron Diffraction and molecular-dynamics study, Physics Review B, 43, No1, 1194-1197, 1991.
- Gwanmesia G.D., F. Guyot, and R. C. Liebermann, Hot-Pressing and Characterization of β-Mg2SiO4 for Acoustic Velocity Measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, No 9, 1331-1334, 1991.
- Gwanmesia G. D., S. M Rigden, J. Fitz Gerald, I. Jackson, and R. C. Liebermann, Pressure Dependence of the Elastic Wave Velocities for β-Mg2SiO4 and the composition of the Earth’s Mantle, Science, 250, 794-797, 1990.
- Guyot F., G. D. Gwanmesia, and R. C. Liebermann, An olivine to beta phase transformation mechanism in Mg2SiO4 , Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, No 4, 1990.
- Susman S., K. J. Volin, R. C. Liebermann, G. D. Gwanmesia, and Y Wang, Structural changes in irreversibly densified fused silica: implications for the chemical resistance of high level nuclear Waste glasses, Phys. Chem. of Glasses, 31, No 4, 144-149, 1990.
- Wong T. F., J. T. Friedreich, and G. D. Gwanmesia, Crack Aperture Statistics and Pore Fractal Geometry of Westly Granite and Rutland Quartzite: Implications for an Elastic Contact Model of Rock Compressibility, J. Geophy. Res., 94, B8, 10267-10278, 1989.
- Kanda H., G. Gwanmesia, and O. Fukunaga, The Properties of a Zirconia Pressure Medium Prepared by Powder Compaction with a Sodium Silicate Solution, High Temperatures-High Pressures, 19, 215-220, 1987.
- Gwanmesia, G., Pressure calibrations in a Girdle-Anvil and A DIA-Type High-Pressure Apparati at Room Temperature (250C) and at High Temperature (10000C), M. Sc. Thesis, State University of New York, Stony Brook, March, 1987.
CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
- Baosheng L., G. D. Gwanmesia, and R. C. Liebermann, Sound velocity measurements at mantle transition zone conditions of pressure and temperature using ultrasonic interferometry in a multi-anvil apparatus, Proceedings of U.S-Japan seminar on High Pressure Research, 1996.
- Gwanmesia G. D., B. Li, and R. C. Liebermann, Recent advances in hot-pressing polycrystals of high-pressure phases of mantle minerals in multi-anvil apparatus, PAGEOPH, Special Issue in Memory of Edward Schreibner, 141, 465-484, 1993.
- Gwanmesia G. D., and R. C. Liebermann, Polycrystals of High-Pressure Phases of Mantle Minerals: Hot-Pressing and characterization of Physical Properties, in High-Pressure Research: Applications to the Earth and planetary science (eds Syono, Y. & Manghnani, M. H.) (TerraPUb), Tokyo, 117-135, 1992.
- Rigden S. M., G. D. Gwanmesia, I. Jackson and R. C. Liebermann, Elasticity of the α, β, and γ polymorphs of Mg2SiO4, in High-Pressure Research: Applications to the Earth and planetary science (eds Syono, Y. & Manghnani, M. H.) (TerraPUb), Tokyo, 167-182, 1992.
- Weidner, D. J., G. D. Gwanmesia, V. Hanniford, and A Remsberg, Mineralogic phase transformations in the mantle, in The Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, edited by D. E. James, pp. 847-854, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1989.
Honors & Awards
- Presidential Diversity Initiatives Awards, Stony Brook University, New York.
- Excellence in Scientific Research, Brook Haven National Laboratory, 7 August, 2010.
- Minority Serving Institutions Technical Assistance-Capacity Building Conference Service Award, September 20-23, 2010.
- First State Grant Achievement Recipient, Honorable Mention for Securing Grants for the State of Delaware, The State of Delaware, 1996.
- Research Excellence Award, Delaware State University, Dover Delaware, 1994.
- Research Achievement Award, Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society at the State University of New York, Stony Brook.
- National Role Model Award, Minority Access Inc, Baltimore, MD, 18 November, 2001.
Ever since joining Delaware State University, Gwanmesia has taught a range of Physics courses, and also taught two Engineering courses titled, Materials Science for Engineers and Geology for Engineers. He teaches Concepts of Physics I and II that are General Education courses to meet the science requirements for non-majors. A new undergraduate degree program in Renewable Energy developed by Gwanmesia is currently being evaluated under the Division of Physical and Computational Science, in which Gwanmesia is developing several Renewable Energy courses.
Since 1991, Professor Gwanmesia has served as a Visiting Research Professor with the Mineral Physics Institute at the Stony Brook University, in New York. In this role, he has recruited and mentored several undergraduate students, many of whom participated in NSF-supported REU summer research internship programs implemented by the Mineral Physics Institute at Stony Brook. Six DSU African-American students (three male; two female) went on to obtain MS degrees in Geophysics or Geosciences Instrumentation from Stony Brook University. These students are the only African-Americans who have earned graduate degrees in the Mineral Physics field.
Gwanmesia currently serves as the Research Coordinator for the Interdisciplinary Consortium for Research and Educational Access in Science and Engineering (INCREASE), a consortium of Minority Serving Institutions committed to supporting and advocating research involving the use of synchrotron X-radiation by minority faculty. The consortium also promotes the training of undergraduate STEM majors engaged in research involving the applications of synchrotron light, with a long term goal of creating a pipeline of talented minority graduates engaged in the design and development of new instrumentation to meet the needs of the X-ray science research. community. Professor Gwanmesia has established un-going education collaboration with Gwanmesia has collaborated with Professor Robert C. Liebermann Dr. Lars Ehm at Stony Brook University to develop a program titled “A Career Path for Underrepresented Minority Students from Minority Serving Institutions to National Laboratories”. The program goal is to increase minority participation in the geosciences, as well as to facilitate diversification of the workforce at DOE facilities such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) II at the Brook Haven National Laboratory (BNL) and the Advanced Photon Light Source (APS) in Chicago.